Dating mappin webb silver plate marks
The application of the spiral balance spring (spiral hairspring) for watches ushered in a new era of accuracy for portable timekeepers, similar to that which the pendulum had introduced for clocks.A great leap forward in accuracy occurred in 1657 with the addition of the balance spring to the balance wheel, an invention disputed both at the time and ever since between Robert Hooke and Christiaan Huygens.They generally incorporate timekeeping functions, but these are only a small subset of the smartwatch's facilities. Watches evolved from portable spring-driven clocks, which first appeared in 15th century Europe.Watches were not widely worn in pockets until the 17th century.Although there was an attempt to modernise clock manufacture with mass production techniques and the application of duplicating tools and machinery by the British Watch Company in 1843, it was in the United States that this system took off.Aaron Lufkin Dennison started a factory in 1851 in Massachusetts that used interchangeable parts, and by 1861 it was running a successful enterprise incorporated as the Waltham Watch Company.One account says that the word "watch" came from the Old English word woecce which meant "watchman", because it was used by town watchmen to keep track of their shifts at work.Drawing of one of his first balance springs, attached to a balance wheel, by Christiaan Huygens, published in his letter in the Journal des Sçavants of 25 February 1675.
The British had predominated in watch manufacture for much of the 17th and 18th centuries, but maintained a system of production that was geared towards high quality products for the elite.Time-related features such as timers, chronographs and alarm functions are common.Some modern designs incorporate calculators, GPS and Bluetooth technology or have heart-rate monitoring capabilities.The concept of the wristwatch goes back to the production of the very earliest watches in the 16th century.Elizabeth I of England received a wristwatch from Robert Dudley in 1571, described as an arm watch.
In the 1960s the electronic quartz watch was invented, which was powered by a battery and kept time with a vibrating quartz crystal.